1 NEW BATTERY FOR
SECOND GENERATION BATTERY The new battery will have an energy density 2 . 946 times greater than the original battery and could easily replace Nickel-Metal Hydride and Lithium-Ion Batteries new being tested by some of the auto-makers. This means that the MARS II, tested by General Motors, would now have a maximum range of 430 miles (146 miles x 2.846 = 430 miles). A brief description of the improvements in the new battery follow: Lead Foam Substrate . The hard lead grids used in both positive and negative plates are now replaced with Lead Foam. This substantially increases the surface area of the hard lead grid and allows the active material of the plate (which chemically stores electricity) to reside in deep pores of the substrate and to produce electric current through thousands of lead conductors which allow the electrolyte free 2 access to the active material. The contact between the active material and the lead conductors is over a thousand times greater than in the hard lead grid. Recirculating Electrolyte System . During the discharge of the battery, the sulfuric acid electrolyte begins to stratify, with highly concentrated acid migrating to the negative plate and water being formed on the positive plate, reducing conductivity and voltage between the plates, in accordance with the equation PbO2 + H2 + H2SO4 = PbSO4 + 2H2O During recharge of the battery, the reverse occurs. By circulating the electrolyte through the cell continuously, the density of the electrolyte remains constant at the positive and negatives plates and stratification of electrolyte is virtually eliminated. This means that the battery can deliver maximum voltage to the electric motor of the car at all times. Gas Purging System . During operation of ordinary batteries, hydrogen and oxygen gases are formed and allowed to escape through vent caps on the battery cells. In VRLA (valve regulated lead-acid) sealed batteries, most of the hydrogen and oxygen are combined into water, but as cell pressure builds up, some of these gases are released through special valves. In either case, explosive gases escape from the battery which sometimes results in damaging explosions (4% hydrogen mixed with air is very explosive). This problem is solved with the new Tri-Polar Lead Cobalt Battery II . In this battery, the cells are sealed and gases are continuously removed from the cells and directed to a filter which disburses the gases into the air in a safe way without hydrogen concentration. Automatic Watering System . The Tri-Polar Lead Cobalt Battery II contains liquid electrolyte which is circulated throughout the cell to avoid stratification of the electrolyte. During the operation of the battery, hydrogen and oxygen gases are formed, which, in effect, removes some water (H2O) from the electrolyte (electrolyte consists of a mixture of sulfuric acid and water). As this water is removed, it is automatically replaced by an automatic watering system connected to all the cells in the battery. Tri-Polar Intracell and Intercell Connection System . In the Tri-Polar system, positive plates are connected to one another in three places, one at the top and two at the bottom of the cell. In a similar manner, the negative plates are connected to one-another in the same way. Therefore, the plates contain six current collecting bus bars, two at the top of the cell and four at the bottom, thus a “Tri-Polar” construction within the cell. At the bottom of the cell, the horizontal bus bars have vertical posts which protrude through the bottom floor of the cell. These posts are connected to a network of bus bars in such a way as to make an electrical connection from one cell to the other. The cells are also connected to one-another near the top of the cells with tongue and groove hardware (described below). Therefore, the “Tri- Polar” construction is effected between the cells… 4 Life Over 100 full performance, highway electric vehicles were built by EFP, most of them sold to electric utility companies (MARS II Electric Cars) . They all were equipped with Tri-Polar Lead Cobalt I Batteries. The average time between the date of sale of the vehicles and date of replacement battery orders was 42-months (i) . Some batteries lasted 60-months (Arizona Public Service, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power) and others 36-months (Illinois Power & Light). Engineering studies have shown that the new Tri-Polar Lead Cobalt Battery II made with Lead Foam plates, will have a cycle life of 1,500. This should equate to 600,000 miles (1,500 cycles x 400-miles per cycle). SUMMARY The Second Generation Tri-Polar Lead Cobalt Battery II will make it possible now for automakers to build Pure Electric Cars operated by batteries only. These cars will have to be recharged at night or at Charge Stations located away from home. Coin-Operated Fast and Slow Charge Stations were set up in California in 1980-81-82 and extensive testing made (i). Silver Volt Electric Car batteries (292 Ah) could be fast charged to 75% of capacity in 30-minutes (240 volts a.c. @300 amps). Charging the second generation battery at home may take 7-hours to replace 700 amp hours in an 80% discharged battery in a large car (240 volts a.c. @100 amps). In a small “Neighborhood Electric Car”, recharge time would be much less….