Chapter 25 Cancer of the Brain and Other Central Nervous System Cancer of the Brain – SEER Survival Monograph National Cancer Institute 203 SEER Survival Monograph INTRODUCTION This study provides survival analysis for 19,774 histologically confirmed first primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancers diagnosed from 1988 through …
Chapter 25 Cancer of the Brain and Nervous System National Cancer Institute 204 SEER Survival Monograph Brain Other CNS Reason for Exclusion/selection Number Selected/ Remaining Number Excluded Number Selected/ Remaining Number Excluded 27,479 0 1,856 0 Select 1988-2001 diagnosis (Los Angeles for 1992-2001 only) 25,159 2,320 1,680 176 Select first primary only 24,647 512 1,656 24 Exclude death certificate only or at autopsy 24,562 85 1,644 12 Exclude unknown race 24,502 60 1,639 5 Active follow-up and exclude alive with no survival time 20,937 3,565 1,306 333 Exclude children (000-019) 20,937 0 1,306 0 Exclude in situ cancers 18,740 2,197 1,196 110 Exclude no or unknown microscopic confirmation 18,674 66 1,118 78 Exclude sarcomas 18,669 5 1,105 13 Exclude Melanomas Table 25.1: Cancer of the Brain & Other Central Nervous System: Number of Cases and Exclusions, 12 SEER Areas, 1988-2001 NOS, C716 – Cerebellum, NOS, C717 – Brain Stem, C718 – Overlapping lesion of brain and C719 – Brain, NOS; SPINE: C701 – Spinal meninges, C720 – Spinal Cord and C721 – Cauda equine and OTHER: C723 – Optic nerve, C724 – Acoustic nerve, C725 – Cranial nerve, NOS, C728 – Overlapping lesion of brain and CNS and C729 – Nervous system, NOS. Stage Classification Stage is not presented for brain cancer; however, stage is presented for other CNS cancer. In the SEER database, the categories for SEER stage are in situ, localized, regional, distant and unstaged. In situ cases are excluded from this study as seen in Table 25.1. Localized stage is defined as an invasive neoplasm confined entirely to the organ. Regional stage is defined as a neoplasm that has extended either beyond the organ or into regional lymph nodes. Distant stage is defined as a neoplasm that has spread to parts of the body remote from the primary tumor. Unstaged cancers lack sufficient information to assign stage. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system, 5th Edition, (14) is also used. RESULTS In general, 24% and 69% of patients survived 5 years for brain cancer and other CNS cancer, respectively (Table 25.2). Figure 25.1 shows the 10-year relative survival curves for these two distinct types of cancer. Histologic Type of Tumor Classification For brain and other CNS cancer, histologic type is one of three important clinical factors (the others are age at diagnosis and grade). In the SEER database, histologic classification for years of diagnosis 1988-2001 follows the ICD-O-2 and ICD-O-3 morphology codes. For the brain cancer cases, the histologic types were coded in the following manner: 9380, 9381, 9382 – glioma; 9390, 9443, 9473 – glioma, other; 9391, 9392, 9393 – ependymoma; 9400-9430 – astrocytoma; 9440-9442 – glioblastoma; 9450-9460 – oligodendroglioma; 9470-9472 – medulloblastoma; 9060-9085, 9490-9506, 8000-8002, 8680, 9364, 9370 – Other. For the other CNS cancer cases, the histologic types were coded in the following manner: 9391-9394 – ependymoma; 9400-9421 – astrocytoma; 9380-9382, 9473, 9440, 9450 – glioma; 9530-9539 – meningioma; 9490-9522, 8680-8693, 800-8001, 8990, 9064, 9364, 9370 – other. Primary Site Classification For brain cancers, primary site of tumor is classified as the following: C710 – Cerebrum, C711 – Frontal Lobe, C712 – Temporal Lobe, C713 – Parietal Lobe, C714 – Occipital Lobe, C715 – Ventricle, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS), C716 – Cerebellum, NOS, C717 – Brain Stem, C718 – Overlapping lesion of brain and C719 – Brain, NOS. For other CNS cancers, primary site of tumor is classified as the following: BRAIN: C700 – Cerebral meninges, C709 – Meninges, NOS, C710 – Cerebrum, C711 – Frontal Lobe, C712 – Temporal Lobe, C713 – Parietal Lobe, C714 – Occipital Lobe, C715 – Ventricle, ….
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