BRAIN CANCER Brain Cancer Edited by Henry S. Friedman, MD James B. Powell Jr. Professor of Neuro-Oncology Deputy Director The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center Duke University … … Medical Center Durham, North Carolina 30 Targeted Treatments for Brain Cancer Cediranib (AZD2171) for Glioblastoma (p 30) Irinotecan (Camptosar) plus Bevacizumab (Avastin) for Malignant Glioma (p 31) Temozolomide plus Vaccine for Glioblastoma (p 32) 33 On the Horizon Vorinostat (Zolinza) for Recurrent Brain Cancer(p 33) MRI scan of the brain …
ach year, more than 20,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with a cancer that begins in the brain. About 60 percent of these primary brain tumors are glioblastomas, the commonest and most aggressive type. Unlike other cancers, tumors that arise in the brain rarely spread to distant organs. Only rarely do brain cancers run in families. Most brain tumors happen for no apparent reason. But there are some known risk factors, such as exposure to radiation, which are mostly a result of treatment for other cancers such as childhood leukemia. Exposure to chemicals such as vinyl chloride (used to manufacture plastics) and petroleum products has been linked by some studies to an increased risk for brain cancer. Targeted Treatments for Brain Cancer As with other types of cancer, clinical trials are showing the benefits of targeted treatments for brain cancer. The results of two recent studies offer hope to people with glioblastomas. CEDIRANIB (AZD2171) FOR GLIOBLASTOMA In the first clinical trial, conducted by researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center in Boston, a new drug called cediranib (AZD2171) was tested in 30 people with recurrent glioblastoma. This drug works by blocking the receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) , a substance that plays a critical role in the growth of blood vessels that feed cancer tumors. This targeted treatment can be taken by mouth once a day. Early findings on all 30 people in the clinical trial showed that six months after treatment, more than a quarter of them had survived without further growth of their cancer. More than half of the patients studied had a significant decrease in the size of their tumor. Researchers are encouraged by these results and are planning more clinical trials on cediranib in combination with chemotherapy, which may be an even better treatment option. IRINOTECAN (CAMPTOSAR) PLUS BEVACIZUMAB (AVASTIN) FOR MALIGNANT GLIOMA In the second clinical trial, the combination of irinotecan (Camptosar) and bevacizumab (Avastin) showed what researchers are calling “extraordinary” effectiveness in people with a brain cancer known as malignant glioma. Malignant gliomas have high levels of VEGF receptors, which are associated with a less successful outcome. Because bevacizumab targets VEGF, it was a natural choice for study in these types of brain tumors. Researchers at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, treated almost 70 people with recurrent malignant gliomas using this combination of drugs. All the patients had received previous treatment with radiation and temozolomide (Temodar). Six months after treatment with irinotecan and bevacizumab, more than 40 percent of those with advanced tumors remained alive without their cancer growing. There was a significant decrease in the size of the tumor in almost 60 percent of the people treated with the combination. At 12 months, almost 40 percent of the patients with advanced cancer and nearly 60 percent of those with less advanced tumors were still alive…
Download Brain Cancer.pdf
- Download: Cancer of the Brain and Other Central Nervous System Cancer of the Brain
- Download: Given the poor prognosis for most brain cancer patients
- Download: Brain tumor treatment increases the number of cancer stem-like cells
- Download: Brain metastases secondary to breast cancer: symptoms, prognosis and evolution
- Download: Treatment of Brain Tumors in Children Is Associated with Abnormal MR Spectroscopic Ratios in Brain….