Download: Landscape and Aesthetics Design Manual.

Taken from Overview: The transportation system is a network of highways, trails, railroads, airports, transmission lines, pipelines, canals, and waterways set in the landscape. The goal of the transportation designer is to fit the highway or other facility into the adjacent landscape in a way that is complementary to, and enhances, the existing landscape. Achieving this goal requires consideration of natural, ecological, aesthetic, economic, and social influences related to that landscape.

Contents:

  • Chapter 1 — Introduction to Landscape and Aesthetics Design
    • Section 1 — Overview [ Non-discrimination ]
    • Section 2 — Landscape and Aesthetics Design of the Transportation Infrastructure [ Overview ~ Policy and Authorities ~ Project Development Process ~ Role of Landscape and Aesthetics in Transportation Design ~ Aesthetics and Aesthetic Quality ]
    • Section 3 — Responsibilities of Landscape Architects [ Overview ~ Safety of the Traveling Public ~ Stewardship of Land, Air, Water, Scenic, Cultural, and Historic Resources ~ Mitigation of Adverse Environmental and Cultural Resource Impacts ~ Integration of the Transportation Network into the Adjacent Landscape ~ Enhancement of the Aesthetic Quality of the Transportation Network ~ Visual Perception of Highway and Transportation Corridors ~ Design Considerations for Scale ~ Laws of Perspective Related to Highway and Transportation Design ~ Design Implications of Visual Perspective ]
    • Section 4 — Highway and Transportation Corridors [ Overview ~ Corridor Segments as a Unit of Design ~ Defining a Corridor Segment ~ Urban Corridors ~ Urban Design Principles and Application ~ Rural Corridors ~ Rural Design Principles and Application ]
    • Section 5 — Aesthetics of Transportation System Elements [ Overview ~ Visual Design Elements ]
    • Section 6 — Context Sensitive Transportation Design. [ Overview ~ Contextual Parameters ~ Structural Design Elements of Transportation Facilities ~ Aesthetic Design of Common Transportation Features ]
    • Section 7 — Policy and Authorities Impacting Landscape and Aesthetics Design [ Overview ~ Regulations ~ Federal Regulations ~ State Law and Regulations ~ Departmental Policy and Programs ~ Landscape and Aesthetics Assessment ~ Landscape and Aesthetics Master Plans ]
  • Chapter 2 — Assessment, Planning, and Design
    • Section 1 — Overview
    • Section 2 — Landscape and Aesthetics Assessment [ Overview ~ Development Process ~ Step 1: Identify the Corridor ~ Step 2: Inventory the Corridor ~ Step 3: Identify Assets, Liabilities, and Opportunities ~ Step 4: Assess the Sensitivity of the Corridor to Construction and Change ~ Step 5: Develop a Landscape and Aesthetics Assessment Statement ~ Outline of a Landscape and Aesthetics Assessment Statement ]
    • Section 3 — Landscape and Aesthetics Master Plan [ Overview ~ Landscape and Aesthetics Master Plan Development Process ~ Step 1: Utilizing the Landscape and Aesthetics Assessment (LLA) ~ Step 2: Develop a Palette of Design Details to Guide Development of the Corridor ~ Materials Table ~ Plant Materials Palette ~ Step 3: Divide the Corridor into Development Zones ~ The Development Zone Chart ~ Partnering Opportunities ]
    • Section 4 — Landscape Design [ Overview ~ The Aesthetics of Right-of-Way Vegetation ~ Using Ornamental Grasses ~ Non-mow Areas ~ Restoration, Habitat Creation, and Naturalization ~ Ornamental Landscape Planting Design Guidelines ~ Plant Selection Criteria ~ Plant Container Sizes ~ Vandalism ~ Using Trees in the Roadway ~ Using Shrubs in the Roadway ~ Using Groundcovers and Seasonal Color Plants ~ Plant Material Relationship to Structures ~ Planning and Design for Landscape Maintenance ~ Plant Irrigation ~ Irrigation System Types ~ Designing for Weed Control in Ornamental Landscape Plantings ~ Design Guidelines for Weed Control in Tree Plantings ~ Design Guidelines for Weed Control in Beds and New Shrub Plantings ]
  • Chapter 3 — Project Development Process
    • Section 1 — Overview
    • Section 2 — Preliminary Design. [ Overview ~ Data Collection and Preliminary Design ~ Conduct Preliminary Design Conference (2000) ~ Conduct Early Coordination with Stakeholders (2110) ~ Obtain Related Data, Plans, Studies and Reports (2160) and Perform Site Visit (1010) . . 3-5 ~ Public Meeting and Design Revision ~ Conduct Public Meeting(s) (2260) ~ Revise Design Based on Public Input (2270) ~ Preliminary and Geometric Schematic Design ~ Evaluate Corridor Alternatives (2300) and Evaluate Route Alternatives (2320) ~ Evaluate Geometric Alternatives (2350) ~ Develop Typical Sections (2360) ~ Prepare Assessment of Landscape and Aesthetic Issues (2370) ~ Develop Bicyclist/Pedestrian Accommodation Concept (2380) ~ Develop Preferred Geometric Alignment (2500) ~ Refine Typical Sections (2520) ~ Prepare Mitigation Plan for Historic Structures (2530) ~ Perform Preliminary Planning for Bridges (2580) ~ Establish Preliminary Retaining and/or Noise Wall Locations (2590) ~ Geometric Schematic Approval ~ Obtain Approval of Geometric Schematic before Public Hearing (2880) ~ Review Geometric Schematic with Stakeholders (2860) ~ Revise Geometric Schematic Based on Input from Public Hearing (2890) ~ Obtain Approval of Final Geometric Schematic (2920) ]
    • Section 3 — Environmental Design [ Overview ~ Preliminary Environmental Issues and Interagency Coordination ~ Review Scope, Cost, and Staff Requirements of Project Development (1400) ~ Determine Public Involvement Needs (3010) ~ Conduct Meeting with Affected Property Owners (3020) ~ Collect Environmental Data (3030) ~ Perform Early Coordination with Review/Resource Agencies (3100) ~ Environmental Documentation ~ Conduct Natural Resources Study (3250) ~ Conduct Cultural Resources Study (3260) ~ Determine Right of Way Relocation Impacts (3310) ~ Analyze Existing Environment (3315) ~ Determine Project’s Environmental Consequences (3345) ~ Prepare Landscape Recommendations (3350) ~ Prepare Description of Project Alternatives (3360) ~ Prepare Exhibits for Environmental Documentation (3370) ~ Prepare Environmental Mitigation Plans (3390) ~ Public Hearing ~ Conduct Public Hearing (3500) ]
    • Section 4 — PS&E Development [ Overview ~ Design Conference and Detailed Design Plan ~ Obtain Additional or Updated Data (5010) ~ Conduct Design Conference (5020) ~ Plan Sequence of Construction (5040) ~ Design Environmental Mitigation Details (5100) ~ Review Data Collection Needs (5120) ~ Final Alignment Profiles ~ Design Final Vertical and Horizontal Alignments (5200) ~ Roadway Design ~ Design Landscape/Aesthetics Plans (5280) ~ Develop Plan and Profile Sheets (5290) ~ Design Bicyclist and Pedestrian Facilities (5300) ~ Design Miscellaneous Details (5330) ~ Operational Design ~ Design Illumination (5380) ~ Bridge Design ~ Prepare Bridge Details (5500) ~ Drainage Design ~ Prepare Culvert and Storm Drain Details (5570) ~ Design Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SW3P) (5600) ~ Retaining/Noise Walls and Miscellaneous Structures ~ Prepare Retaining and/or Noise Wall Layouts (5640) and Prepare Retaining and/or Noise Wall ~ Plans and Details (5680) ~ PS&E Assembly and Design Review ~ Conduct Environmental Re-Evaluation and Determine Resulting Plan Changes (5810) 3-32 ~ Prepare PS&E Package (5830) ~ District Performs Final Review of PS&E (5900) ~ Nature and Timing of the Process ]
  • Chapter 4 — Landscape and Aesthetics Guidelines for Common Structural Elements
    • Section 1 — Overview
    • Section 2 — Bridges [ Bridge Aesthetics ]
    • Section 3 — Retaining Walls and Noise Walls [ Overview ~ Wall Color and Finish ~ Vertical Alignment ]
    • Section 4 — Topography and Grading [ Overview ~ Landform Manipulation for Aesthetic Purposes ~ Large, Multi-Level Interchanges ~ Rights-of-Way that Require Noise Walls ~ Medians ~ Embankments ~ Designing for Erosion Prevention ~ Limiting Erosion Potential ~ Vegetation Maintenance on Slopes ~ Drainage Channels ~ Ponds and Water Quality Structures ~ Ground Surface Protection for Erosion Control ~ Compost or Mulch ~ Erosion Control Compost or Soil Retention Blankets ~ Channel Liners ~ Bioengineering Techniques for Erosion Control and Streambank Stabilization ~ Plant Materials ~ Other Bioengineering Techniques ]
    • Section 5 — Adjacent Properties [ Overview ~ Blend the Highway ~ Contrast the Highway ~ Screen the Highway ]
    • Section 6 — Surface Finishes [ Overview ~ Color ~ Texture ~ Pattern ~ Special Finish Options ~ Vertical Surfaces ~ Horizontal Surfaces ]
    • Section 7 — Traffic Barriers and Guard Fences [ Overview ~ Design Coordination ]
    • Section 8 — Signals and Signs [ Overview ~ Visual Complexity ~ Large Route Information Signs ~ Directional and Traffic Signs ~ Traffic Control Signs and Signals ]
    • Section 9 — Illumination [ Overview ~ Lighting for Visual Effect ~ Aesthetic Character of Luminaires and Poles ~ Color of Light ~ Lighting and Plant Materials ]
    • Section 10 — Bicycle and Pedestrian Access. [ Overview ~ Bicycle Facilities Design ~ Pedestrian Facilities Design ]
    • Section 11 — Public Art [ Overview ~ Safety ~ Finishes ~ Location ~ Vandalism ~ Theme ~ Complexity ]
    • Section 12 — Medians and Traffic Islands. [ Overview ~ Functional Elements ~ Aesthetic Elements ]
  • Chapter 5 — Landscape and Aesthetics Guidelines for Common Transportation System Features
    • Section 1 — Overview
    • Section 2 — Intersections [ Visibility ~ Concentration of Visual Information ~ Shade, Shadow, and Reflection ~ Placement of Design Elements ~ Pedestrian Movements ~ Future Off-Site Development ~ Accessibility ~ Aesthetics of Intersections ]
    • Section 3 — Elevated Driving Lanes [ Overview ~ Reasons for Community Resistance ~ Aesthetic Design Considerations ]
    • Section 4 — Interchanges [ Overview ~ Types of Interchange ~ Interchange Size ~ Safety ~ Drainage ~ Planting ~ Shade ~ Gores ~ Pedestrian Circulation ]
    • Section 5 — Depressed Driving Lanes [ Overview ~ Aesthetic Desgin Considerations ]
    • Section 6 — Entrance and Exit Ramps [ Overview ~ Safety Considerations ~ Visibility ~ Placement of Plants and Other Features ]

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